International Encyclopaedia
of the Histories of Anthropology

’Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Khaldûn al-Ḥaḍramî (b. Tunis 1332 – d. Cairo 1406) pursued several different life ambitions, some with extraordinary success. He was a theologian, a politician, a traveller, a qadi, a cultural analyst, a social thinker, a reviser of historical science and, unceasingly, a deeply pious man. He travelled through most of the Maghreb and Muslim Andalusia, observing the patterns in customs of different social classes – from holders of power to the underprivileged. His observations became a foundation for his “new historical science”: an investigation of the hidden levers of history, expounded in his monumental book, The Muqaddimah. Ibn Khaldun died at the age of 74 and was buried at a Sufi cemetery in Cairo.

Keywords: Philosophy of history | Science | Middle Ages | Andalusia | Morocco | Maghreb | Algeria | Tunisia | Berbers | Bedouins | Islam | Nomadic tribes | Urban culture | Anthropological concepts