International Encyclopaedia
of the Histories of Anthropology

Henrique de Carvalho (1843-1909), a Portuguese military man, explorer and ethnographer, is the author of several monographs on the famous Central African empire of the “Muatianvua”, in the Lunda region, after leading an expedition there under the auspices of the Lisbon Geographical Society between 1884 and 1888. A precursor of the ethnographic revolution, Carvalho learned the country’s language and, based on participant observation, carefully recorded cultural, social and above all political life, while noting Portuguese influences.

Keywords: Amateur ethnographer | Explorer | Military | Second half of the 19th century | Portugal | Lunda | Angola

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