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In Mariza Corrêa’s Archive: A Brief Introduction to Two Key Documents

Amanda Gonçalves Serafim


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Serafim, Amanda Gonçalves, 2024. “In Mariza Corrêa’s Archive: A Brief Introduction to Two Key Documents”, in Bérose - Encyclopédie internationale des histoires de l'anthropologie, Paris.

URL Bérose : article3339.html

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Publié dans le cadre de HITAL - Histoire transatlantique des Anthropologies d’Amérique Latine / International Research Network - INSHS (CNRS), dirigé par Christine Laurière ; Équipe USP/Unicamp, sous la direction de Fernanda Peixoto, Gustavo Rossi, Christiano Tambascia

Publié dans le cadre du thème de recherche «Histoires de l’anthropologie au Brésil», dirigé par Stefania Capone (CNRS, CREDA) et Fernanda Arêas Peixoto (Universidade de São Paulo)

Résumé : Mariza Corrêa (1945-2016) est une anthropologue brésilienne qui s’est consacrée à deux domaines de recherche principaux : les études de genre et l’histoire de l’anthropologie, y compris la relation entre ces deux domaines d’étude. Parmi les projets qu’elle a menés, deux se distinguent dans le domaine de l’histoire de l’anthropologie. Le premier est le Projet d’histoire de l’anthropologie au Brésil (PHAB), qui vise à retrouver la mémoire des premières décennies de la discipline dans le pays. Le second est le projet Anthropologues & Anthropologie, une ramification de l’initiative précédente, qui a cherché à réfléchir sur le silence concernant les figures féminines dans cette histoire. L’objectif de ce texte est de présenter cette recherche en contextualisant deux documents importants de la collection de Mariza Corrêa conservée aux Archives Edgard Leuenroth – un rapport d’activité et un projet de recherche – afin de diffuser les contributions et l’héritage de son travail à ceux qui s’intéressent aux domaines d’étude dans lesquels elle a travaillé.

Introducing Mariza Corrêa, Her Projects and Her Papers

Brazilian anthropologist Mariza Corrêa (1945–2016) was a professor at the State University of Campinas (Unicamp) and one of the founders of the Centre for Gender Studies Pagu at the same institution. [1] Her research interests centred on gender relations and the history of anthropology in Brazil – including the intertwining of these two themes. [2]

Corrêa’s early interest in disciplinary history was patent in her PhD thesis, As ilusões da liberdade : a Escola Nina Rodrigues e a Antropologia no Brasil (The illusions of freedom : the Nina Rodrigues school and anthropology in Brazil, 1982), held at the University of São Paulo (USP). [3] This doctoral research prompted her participation in the History of Anthropology in Brazil project (PHAB), initially conceived by anthropologist Manuela Carneiro da Cunha (1943–), at the time a professor at Unicamp ; upon the latter’s transfer to the University of São Paulo, Corrêa was invited to implement the project in her place.

The PHAB project began in 1984 with the participation of Mariza Corrêa, undergraduate students in the social sciences and postgraduate students in social anthropology at the University of Campinas [4] (Cf. Corrêa 2013b). The initial goal of the research was to recover – and to record – as much as possible of the history of Brazilian anthropology between the 1930s, when Brazilian universities were founded, and the first half of the 1960s, before the first anthropology postgraduate programmes were created in the country. [5] To develop the project, several interviews were conducted with Brazilian and foreign anthropologists. With the increased number of interviews, the reception of new documents and greater funding, [6] the scope of PHAB was broadened to include other generations of professionals and the reconfiguration of anthropology postgraduate programmes in the country in the second half of the 1960s and 1970s. According to Corrêa (1995a), the project produced more than twenty video interviews and twenty-five audio. It is worth noting that only seven interviews were published in full or in part, [7] but many of them are available in the anthropologist’s papers (I will discuss these later).

This first project unfolded into a second, Antropólogas & Antropologia (Women Anthropologists & Anthropology), which began in 1989 (Cf. Corrêa 2003b), with funding from national institutions, both the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Unicamp. In the midst of the research carried out within the PHAB, not only did the scarcity of female anthropologists in the period under analysis become clear to Corrêa, but also the difficulty of finding information about these women. It was in the encounter with these lost and found figures that this new study began, uniting two research interests that the anthropologist had developed throughout her career : gender relations and the history of anthropology in Brazil.

It should be noted that there is no consensus on the official title of the second project, although in general the formulae in question can be considered quite close. In different publications, the name appears with some subtle changes : “Antropólogas e Antropologia” (Women Anthropologists and Anthropology), “Antropólogas e Antropologia no Brasil” (Women Anthropologists and Anthropology in Brazil) and “Antropólogas & Antropologia” (Women Anthropologists & Anthropology). It should also be noted that in the 1970s, Adam Kuper published Anthropology and Anthropologists : The Modern British School (1973), which was translated into Portuguese five years later with the title inflected in the masculine, Antropólogos e Anthropologia (Kuper 1978). Mariza Corrêa’s book, the result of the project, was published as Antropólogas & Antropologia (Women Anthropologists & Anthropology, Corrêa 2003b), in a clear allusion to Kuper’s work. The reference to this book is part of the discussion within the Brazilian project, which sought to both problematise the erasure of the trajectories of women anthropologists and recover some of these stories.

The material produced and gathered by Corrêa as a result of these two research projects, and others she developed throughout her career, was collected and donated to the Arquivo Edgard Leuenroth (AEL), [8] located at Unicamp in Brazil, a few years after the anthropologist’s death in 2016. Previously, while the PHAB was still in development, some of the documentation had already been sent to the institution, for example the papers of other anthropologists received by the project. [9] As a result, the AEL now has a broad corpus, comprising a series of different types of documents, such as texts, newspapers, photos, videos and audios, stored in more than 80 archive boxes. In terms of content, apart from correspondence, study and teaching materials (such as syllabus for courses taught and texts produced for classes), there are many documents relating to Corrêa’s research (her master’s and doctoral studies, PHAB, the Women Anthropologists & Anthropology Project, among others) and her previous work as a journalist. There are also letters, diaries, notebooks, published texts and unpublished writings (such as papers prepared for various conferences). In addition, there are documents on funding received (by her and by her advisees), scattered and varied notes, theses and dissertations, a programme of scientific events, institutional material on postgraduate programmes, reports, student work and her own work as a master’s student.

Some of the transcripts of PHAB testimonies can also be located, as well as funds and documents received or accumulated by the project. As is clear, some of the material gathered and produced by PHAB is also in Mariza Corrêa’s personal archive (in other words, only some of it officially constitutes independent funds at AEL, as is the case with the four archival funds mentioned above). As well as textual material, the anthropologist’s collection includes photographs, VHS tapes, cassette tapes and DVDs (especially the material produced during the development of the PHAB, including the interviews) and floppy discs (which hold a large part of the unpublished material, such as presentations presented at different conferences).

A detailed analysis of Corrêa’s papers allows us to follow the way in which certain themes were developed throughout her career : as in the case of the transition from her master’s degree (on the legal representations of sexual roles in homicide cases committed by men « in defence of honour ») to her PhD thesis (on the so-called Nina Rodrigues School and the relationship between anthropology and medicine), then to PHAB, and to the problem of the imbrications between gender and the history of anthropology. Continuity and diversification of lines can be seen in the expansion of her interest from an early focus on a specific group of intellectuals who worked in Brazil in the first decades of the 20th century (the subject of her doctoral thesis) to the constitution and institutionalisation of the discipline in Brazil (research carried out at PHAB).

Available for consultation by researchers, the anthropologist’s papers constitute a powerful set of documents that go far beyond her personal trajectory, since they also cover her research interests, which include the work and trajectory of her interlocutors (mostly anthropology professionals). Another important point revealed by the documentation is the establishment of the history of anthropology in Brazil as a field of research, which became more visible, especially in the 1980s. There is no doubt that PHAB and the work of Mariza Corrêa and her collaborators were the most solid efforts to produce reflections on the constitution and development of anthropology in the country, the unfolding of which continues to have an impact to this day. [10]

The description of her two projects is thicker if we try to contextualise the two selected documents that are the core of Mariza Corrêa’s papers : a report on PHAB activities and the Women Anthropologists & Anthropology research project. Although my aim is not to exhaust all possible reflections arising from these materials, the aim of the present article is to elucidate some of the debates, authors and events involved in this history of anthropology for those interested in Brazilian anthropology beyond its national borders. [11]

Contextualising the Report “História da Antropologia no Brasil (1930–1960) : Testemunhos”

The document in question concerns a report produced in January 1985 on the progress of the History of Anthropology in Brazil Project (PHAB), which, as mentioned before, was fundamental in stimulating the formation of a field of research on the history of the discipline in this country. This material is available for interested parties to consult in person at the AEL, next to box number 13, [12] or digitally in the Mariza Corrêa encyclopaedic dossier in BEROSE. This is a physical document, typewritten on 18 pages and in good reading and handling conditions, designed to be sent to one of the project’s funding agencies, FAPESP, after its first year.

Right at the start, Corrêa explains the chronological definitions of the project : the period between 1930 and 1960. Regarding the initial milestone, the anthropologist warns that this choice does not imply that anthropology only began to be practised in the country in the 1930s. In fact, she says, this decision is justified by the emergence in that decade of a set of factors – such as the creation of university institutions and the recruitment of specialised professionals, both national and foreign – responsible for the introduction of new repertoires and practices, from which it is possible to identify and define Brazilian anthropological production more clearly.

Regarding the choice of interlocutors, the project took into account the work of anthropologists between the time frames of the research, as well as the different regions of the country. [13] Regarding the geographical issue, although it was inevitable to emphasise the Southeast region throughout the period (due to the concentration of institutions, anthropologists and research projects in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), the text points out how anthropology produced in the Northeast, especially in the states of Pernambuco and Bahia, was of fundamental importance for the growth of the discipline, for the development of large collective projects and for the training of professionals.

Mariza Corrêa’s research pathways can be followed by looking at each of her studies and projects, and it is precisely here that one of the report’s great potentials lies. This text is an important document, among other things, because it allows us to follow the beginnings of the project and the issues that permeated its development, as well as the changes it underwent over time ; traces that tend to disappear in the results later published, such as in the Traficantes do simbólico & outros ensaios sobre história da antropologia (Traffickers of the symbolic & other essays on the history of anthropology, 2013b). These transformations can be seen, for example, in the expansion of the project’s time frame, that is, the inclusion of the 1970s in the reflections. Although this period is only briefly mentioned in the report (with reference to the restructuring and creation of postgraduate programmes, starting in 1968), it became a favoured object of analysis in the following years, which was certainly made possible by the increase in funding and the developments that the research underwent over time. The year 1985, when the report was produced, corresponded to the first stage of mapping out the historical context, the interlocutors, the established time frames and the issues that would in fact be central to recovering and producing a history of the discipline.

The document also shows how Mariza Corrêa inserts her project into an already existing theoretical framework, defining the objectives and emphases that distinguish this initiative, as well as the way in which the research would be carried out. Let us not forget that, especially since the 1980s, important texts by anthropologists reflecting on anthropological practice and the history of anthropology in Brazil have come to light, for example Mariza Peirano’s doctoral thesis (1981) and Julio Cezar Melatti’s historical-bibliographical essay (1983). Although there is dialogue with these works, Corrêa argues that it is necessary to give greater prominence to individual trajectories, situating them in their theoretical and institutional contexts, and to the multiple experiences and productions from the different regions of the country. Only in this way, she argues, would it be possible to visualize a Brazilian anthropology, that is, an anthropology made in Brazil, by both Brazilians and foreigners.

PHAB was pioneering in carrying out a major systematisation effort that starts with and is based on the individual experiences of figures considered central to the history of anthropology, through the interviews carried out – for example with Donald Pierson. [14] At the same time, it recovered the institutional and theoretical contexts that permeated these experiences, which help to understand the different periods of the discipline produced and practised in Brazil.

On this more general level of the history of Brazilian anthropology, in the text of the report, Corrêa explains how the institutional locus for the production of anthropological knowledge changed over time : from inside museums to philosophy faculties in the early 1930s, and from there to university postgraduate programmes in the late 1960s, through changes in educational policies, the specialisation of the discipline and the emergence or strengthening of institutions. In these shifts, it was above all the creation of the Brazilian Anthropological Association (ABA) in 1955 that enabled a national-level intellectual and political networking of anthropologists gain momentum with the help of periodic meetings. In this way, the association came to occupy a prominent place in the history of the discipline. As well as being president of the ABA between 1996 and 1998, Mariza Corrêa was responsible for formally donating the association’s previously dispersed archives to the AEL, having written a book dedicated to recovering the memory of the institution and its meetings, As Reuniões brasileiras de antropologia - Cinquenta anos (1953-2003) (The Brazilian Anthropology Meetings : fifty years (1953-2003) Corrêa 2003a).

In the report, Corrêa emphasises the “theoretical orientations” and the ways in which the work of Brazilian researchers was organised. The following theoretical orientations stand out in the period in question : the discussion on acculturation, based on research into indigenous societies and migrant groups ; so-called "community studies", centred on questions of cultural change ; [15] and debates on race relations in both rural and urban contexts. In terms of form, individual research gave way to collective projects, which is evident, for example, in the partnership established in 1950 between Columbia University and the State of Bahia through Charles Wagley (1913–1991) [16] and Thales de Azevedo (1904–1995) [17] for the study of race relations in Bahia, which received funding from UNESCO. Research into indigenous societies and investigations into relations between Blacks and Whites in Brazilian society defined the two main axes of anthropological production in this period, which continued in subsequent years, taking on new contours and redefinitions. In the case of indigenous ethnology, specifically, the perspective of acculturation was being replaced by other visions of contact between indigenous people and national society, tackled from the perspective of interethnic relations.

Finally, it should be remembered that this document is the result of just one year of research and that the project continued to evolve over the following years. Corrêa emphasises that the analysis outlined in the report is preliminary and is aimed at briefly highlighting some of the roads that the research followed based on the interviews and bibliography gathered. We have presented here a part of the argument that seems sufficient for us to appreciate the report’s importance. This text, the letters exchanged with the interlocutors of the research, the transcripts of their interviews, the drafts and many other documents deposited at the AEL, as well as the books and articles published and the other archives that Corrêa helped to form and organise make up an extremely rich set of documents. The archival fund produced and gathered by PHAB not only provides information on the history of Brazilian anthropology and its professionals, but it also fuelled, and continues to fuel, this field of research in the country, thus helping to shape other histories of the discipline.

Contextualising the “Women Anthropologists & Anthropology Research Project” Report

The second key document corresponds to the research project “Women Anthropologists & Anthropology”. Although it is not dated, it can be assumed that it was produced at the end of the 1980s, since the initiative began during this period. The project consists of fifteen typewritten pages in an excellent state of preservation and readability. It is available for consultation in person at the AEL, in box number 13, and also digitally in the encyclopaedic dossier dedicated to Mariza Corrêa in BEROSE.

Corrêa begins by contextualising the reasons that led her to carry out this research after the PHAB. She mentions some of her own texts that had been published previously and that would appear as annexes to the project, although they have not been preserved with the document. Even so, it can be assumed that the first corresponds to the article “Traficantes do excêntrico. Os antropólogos no Brasil dos anos 30 aos 60” (Traffickers of the eccentric. Anthropologists in Brazil from the 1930s to the 1960s,1988), later published in the book Traficantes do simbólico & outros ensaios sobre história da antropologia (2013b) – the author’s last published work. Towards the end of the project, she mentions a second annex, referring to a text produced about Professor Leolinda Daltro (1859–1977), which possibly corresponds to the article “Os Índios do Brasil Elegante & a Professora Leolinda Daltro” (The Indians of Elegant Brazil & Professor Leolinda Daltro, Corrêa 1989), reprinted in Antropólogas & Antropologia (2003b).

Women can be said to be present in the testimonies and documents of the project coordinated by Corrêa on the history of anthropology in Brazil, but only in the background ; although they are involved in the narratives about institutionalisation of the discipline in the country, women do not figure as protagonists of this period. Female anthropologists are remembered for different aspects of their work, whether their scientific and administrative contributions or their personal, emotional and family relationships, but only a portion of their work is referred to, not their wider professional contributions and activities. However, when analysing the fiction literature of the period, Mariza Corrêa discovers that several of these women are present in novels ; in other words, unlike their male counterparts, they appear in non-academic books whose purpose is not to discuss their research and projects. [18] These are the cases of Emília Snethlage (1868–1929) – a German ornithologist who arrived in Brazil in 1905 and stayed until the end of her life, making expeditions through the Amazon and working in two important museums, the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (MPEG) and the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro ; Leolinda Daltro, a sertanista, [19] teacher and feminist, who worked for secular literacy and tried to create a civil association to defend indigenous rights and education in the country ; and Heloísa Alberto Torres (1895–1935), an anthropologist, director of the Museu Nacional and president of the Comissão Nacional de Proteção ao Índio (National Commission for the Protection of the Indian), who carried out a lot of research into material culture. Each of them, in their own way, was understood to be doing work that was "out of the ordinary", in other words, outside of what was socially expected for women of the period, since they were involved in activities that were mostly carried out by men.

As Mariza Corrêa delved deeper into the characters considered central to the history of anthropology and therefore more commonly dealt with, she also became interested in the wives of anthropologists, both Brazilian and foreign. She revealed how these women generally worked as research assistants to their husbands or as co-authors of texts signed by them, but were not seen as professionals, even though some of them had anthropological training. The two types that she identified – the “exceptional” (that is, female) anthropologists and the “wives” of anthropologists – offered Corrêa an important key to analysing the contribution of women to the constitution and history of Brazilian anthropology, giving them citizenship and a leading role.

Although at the end of the 20th century a series of studies focusing on the history of the discipline emerged in Brazil and around the world, this historiography seemed to pay little attention to gender issues, apart from the fact that figures such as Bronislaw Malinowski (1884–1942) and Franz Boas (1858–1942) have been seen as playing a decisive role in fostering the careers of various female anthropologists and researchers. [20]

Fig. 1.
Édison Carneiro, Raimundo Lopes, Charles Wagley, Heloisa Alberto Torres, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Ruth Landes, and L. de Castro Faria at the Museu Nacional, 1939.
Archive of the History of Anthropology in Brazil Project/AEL/UNICAMP
Fig. 2.
The photo shows an extract from the documentary « Memória da Antropologia no Brasil RBA-50 anos » (Memory of Anthropology in Brazil RBA-50 years), available on VHS tape in the Mariza Corrêa archive (AEL/Unicamp). In the image projected onto the television, we can see some of the ABA’s (Brazilian Anthropological Association’s) former presidents : Silvio Coelho dos Santos, Roque de Barros Laraia, Antonio Augusto Arantes, Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira, Eunice Ribeiro Durham, Gilberto Velho, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro and Ruben Oliven. This scene is a reference to the famous photo taken on the same bench at the Museu Nacional more than 60 years earlier (see Figure 1).
Private collection of Amanda Gonçalves Serafim.

According to Corrêa, [21] no comparable figures to Malinowski and Boas can be found in Brazil associated with stimulating women’s careers. Although men and women have always been present in Brazilian anthropology, the opportunities and difficulties they faced in becoming professionals were different, as were the ways of remembering the participation of female anthropologists in the history of anthropology. It is silence and oblivion that make it difficult to locate records of the presence and work of these women – a point that Corrêa demonstrates not only by analysing the trajectories of Emília Snethlage, Leolinda Daltro and Heloisa Alberto Torres, but also by reflecting on the “name” or the “renown”, acquired or lost, in the academic field.

Although the issue of the name is an important topic for reflection in the text of the “Women Anthropologists & Anthropology” project, it appears very subtly, especially when Mariza Corrêa mentions how Dina Dreyfus (1911–1999) became Dina Lévi-Strauss upon her marriage. Adopting her husband’s surname erased her original name and she became “just” the wife of the French anthropologist in books, articles and references. The problem was explored in depth years later, in the book that bears the same title as the project ; in it, Corrêa (2003b) discusses the idea of renown, showing that in the male case, it relates exclusively to prestige, but that in the female case, it is confused with the act of receiving a new name as a result of marriage. This is a decisive factor in why it is difficult to find the previous surname, as well as information about these women, other than that linked to their husbands and their careers.

At the end of the text of the project, Corrêa points out that the panorama began to change in Brazil at the end of the 1970s with the greater numbers of women entering the discipline. This was a consequence of wider access to specialisation courses that followed the expansion of postgraduate programmes in social anthropology and which also contributed to a greater development of academic careers in Brazil, for both men and women.

With this set of reflections and the outlining of a research agenda that brought together the history of science and criticism of the gender relations in force at the time, Mariza Corrêa developed a pioneering work that contributed to new perspectives on the trajectories of female anthropologists who are part of the history of anthropology in Brazil. More than that, she managed to effectively include these trajectories and these female authors and characters in the anthropological debate.

Final remarks

This brief presentation and contextualisation of two important texts in Mariza Corrêa’s archival fund does not exhaust the import and the results of the two research projects in question, nor does it give more than a glimpse of the anthropologist’s career and broader dedication to anthropology. But it does help us to understand the potentialities of her archive for the development of research into the history of anthropology in Brazil and other countries.

It is also important to note that compiling, safekeeping and disseminating anthropological archives – or the archives of anthropologists – was a fundamental aspect of the PHAB. From this perspective, Mariza Corrêa’s archival fund remains in itself a contribution to the development and knowledge of other histories of the discipline. Therefore, the digitisation and dissemination of part of its contents, as well as the research carried out on the basis of it, give continuity to her legacy.

Bibliographical references

CAVALCANTI, Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro. “Oracy Nogueira : esboço de uma trajetória intelectual". Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, v. 2, nº 2, julho-outubro de 1995, p. 119-134.

CORRÊA, Mariza. Os atos e os autos : representações jurídicas de papéis sexuais. Dissertação (Mestrado em Antropologia Social), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, 1975.

CORRÊA, Mariza. Os crimes da paixão. São Paulo : Brasiliense, 1981.

CORRÊA, Mariza. Morte em família : representações jurídicas de papeis sexuais. Rio de Janeiro : Edições Graal, 1983

CORRÊA, Mariza. “O Dono do Trovão : Manuel Nunes Pereira (1893-1985)”. Anuário Antropológico, v. 10, nº 1, 1986, p. 33.

CORRÊA, Mariza (org.). História da Antropologia no Brasil : 1930-1960 – Testemunhos : Emilio Willems e Donald Pierson. São Paulo ; Campinas : Vértice ; Editora da Unicamp, 1987. 3-336.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “Traficantes do excêntrico. Os antropólogos no Brasil dos anos 30 aos 60”. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais, v. 3, n. 6, p. 79-98, 1988.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “Os Índios do Brasil Elegante & a Professora Leolinda Daltro”. Revista Brasileira de História, São Paulo, v. 9, n. 18, p. 43-65, 1989.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “História da antropologia no Brasil – Projeto da Unicamp”. História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, v. 2, nº 2, 1995a, p. 115-118.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “Florestan Fernandes : Esboço de uma trajetória”. Boletim Informativo e Bibliográfico em Ciências Sociais (BIB), Rio de Janeiro, n. 40, 1995b, p. 3-25.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “O Espartilho de minha avó : linhagens femininas na antropologia”. Horizontes Antropológicos, Porto Alegre, ano 3, n. 7, p. 70-96, 1997.

CORRÊA, Mariza. As reuniões brasileiras de antropologia – Cinquenta anos (1953-2003). Campinas ; Brasília : Editora da Unicamp ; ABA, 2003a.

CORRÊA, Mariza. Antropólogas e Antropologia. Belo Horizonte : Editora UFMG, 2003b.

CORRÊA, Mariza. As Ilusões da liberdade : a escola de Nina Rodrigues e a Antropologia no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro : Editora FIOCRUZ, 2013a.

CORRÊA, Mariza. Traficantes do simbólico & outros ensaios sobre a história da antropologia. Campinas : Editora da Unicamp, 2013b.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “Girl-Friday”. Cadernos Pagu, Campinas, n. 69, 2023a, p. 1-6.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “Meus encontros com Ruth Landes”. Cadernos Pagu, Campinas, n. 69, 2023b, p. 1-4.

CORRÊA, Mariza. “Comemoração do cinquentenário da primeira Reunião Brasileira de Antropologia (1953-2003)”. Cadernos Pagu, Campinas, n. 69, 2023c, p. 1-4.

CORRÊA, Mariza ; MELLO, Januária. Querida Heloisa/Dear Heloisa : cartas de campo para Heloisa Alberto Torres. Campinas, Núcleo de Estudos de Gênero – PAGU, 2008 [série Pesquisa].

FRANCESCHI, Zelda Alice. “Las discípulas ocultas de Franz Boas. Historia e Historias de vida”. Maguaré, Bogotá, v. 28, n. 1, p. 19-49, 2014.

GUIMARÃES, Antonio Sérgio Alfredo, 2021. “Democracia racial e religiosidade popular em Thales de Azevedo : retrato de um antropólogo católico”, in BEROSE International Encyclopaedia of the Histories of Anthropology, Paris.

KUPER, Adam. Antropólogos e Antropologia. Rio de Janeiro : Livraria Francisco Alves Editora, 1978.

MELATTI, Julio Cezar. “A antropologia no Brasil : Um roteiro”. Série Antropologia, Brasília, nº 38, [1983] 2007.

MICELI, Sérgio (org). História das ciências sociais no Brasil, volume 1. São Paulo : Vértice ; Editora Revista dos Tribunais ; IDESP, 1989.

MICELI, Sérgio (org). História das ciências sociais no Brasil, volume 2. São Paulo : Editora Sumaré ; FAPESP, 1995.

OLIVEIRA, Nemuel da Silva ; MAIO, Marcos Chor. “Estudos de Comunidade e ciências sociais no Brasil”. Revista Sociedade e Estado, Brasília v. 26, n. 3, 2011, p. 521-550.

PEIRANO, Mariza. « Anthropology of Anthropology : The Brazilian Case ». Série Antropologia, Brasília, nº 110, [1981] 1991.

RUBIM, Christina de Rezende. “Os programas de pós-graduação em antropologia social do Museu Nacional, Universidade de Brasília, Universidade de São Paulo e Universidade Estadual de Campinas”. Horizontes Antropológicos, Porto Alegre, ano 3, n. 7, 1997, p. 97-128.

SERAFIM, Amanda Gonçalves. “Abraços do velho” : Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira e a construção de um projeto de antropologia. Dissertação de Mestrado, Unicamp, Campinas, 2021.

SERAFIM, Amanda Gonçalves. “Meus encontros com Mariza Corrêa”. Cadernos Pagu, Campinas, n. 69, 2023, p. 1-10.

TAMBASCIA, Christiano ; ROSSI, Gustavo. “Sidetracks : Mariza Corrêa e a história da antropologia no Brasil”. Cadernos Pagu, Campinas, n. 54, 2018, p. 1-30.

[2Amanda Serafim is a PhD student in social anthropology at the State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Brazil. Research funded by the São Paulo State Research Foundation (Process No. 2021/05948-9). This article was translated from Portuguese by Frederico Delgado Rosa and revised by David Tucker.

[3The thesis was published as a book under the same title in 1998. Corrêa’s dissertation was carried out at Unicamp and entitled Os Autos e os atos : representações jurídicas de papéis sexuais (Proceedings and acts : legal representations of sexual roles, 1975). This is an important work both for legal anthropology and gender studies. Her research in these fields is also reflected in Os Crimes da Paixão (1981) e Morte em Família : representações jurídicas de papéis sexuais (1983).

[4Over the course of twenty years, many students and researchers contributed to PHAB, including in one of the volumes that emerged from this initiative, Querida Heloisa : cartas de campo para Heloisa Alberto Torres (Dear Heloisa : field letters to Heloisa Alberto Torres) (Corrêa & Mello, 2008). Corrêa mentions four names who were closest to this project, namely : Ana Luisa Mello e Silva, Francisco Tadeu Rosa, Luiz Henrique Passador and Maria Helena Ortolan. It is important to remember that between 1986 and 1989, Mariza Corrêa was close to the History of Social Sciences in Brazil Project (1930–1960), coordinated by sociologist Sérgio Miceli (1944–) at the Institute of Economic, Social and Political Studies of São Paulo (IDESP), a project that would become an important counterpart for PHAB. See Miceli 1989 ; 1995.

[5Although there have been master’s and doctoral programmes in anthropology in Brazil since the 1940s, it was not until the 1960s, with the enactment of two important decrees related to education (the Sucupira Report of 1965 and the University Reform of 1968) that major transformations took place in higher education in Brazil. It was during this movement that the country’s postgraduate programmes were created or transformed, expanding access and entry for a greater number of researchers to master’s and PhD courses, as well as increasing financial support and research grants – a configuration that continues to this day. For more on this subject and the creation of the first programmes along these lines, see Rubim, 1997.

[6The project began with funding from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (São São Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP)), but over time it began to receive contributions from other national agencies, such as the Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Financing Agency for Studies and Projects, Finep) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, CNPq – agencies linked to the federal government, as well as resources from Unicamp itself.

[7Of more than 30 testimonies, only those of Emilio Willems (1905–1997), Donald Pierson (1900–1995), Verena Stolcke (1938–) and Ruth Cardoso (1930–2008) were published in books : the first two in História da Antropologia no Brasil (1930-1960) – Testemunhos : Emilio Willems e Donald Pierson (Corrêa 1987) and the four interviews in Traficantes do simbólico & outros ensaios sobre a história da antropologia (Corrêa 2013b). In addition to these, Oracy Nogueira’s (1917–1996) testimony was published in the Manguinhos magazine, « Oracy Nogueira : esboço de uma trajetória intelectual » (Cavalcanti 1995) ; Florestan Fernandes’ (1920–1995), « Florestan Fernandes : Esboço de uma trajetória » in the Boletim Informativo e Bibliográfico em Ciências Sociais (BIB) (Corrêa 1995b) and a brief summary of the interview with Manuel Nunes Pereira (1893–1985) was published in his obituary in the Anuário Antropológico, « O Dono do Trovão : Manuel Nunes Pereira (1893–1985) » (Corrêa 1986).

[8The AEL is a Social Research and Documentation Centre that is part of the Institute of Philosophy and Human Sciences at Unicamp. It was created from the collection of journalist and anarchist Edgard Leuenroth (1881-1968) and later received other collections. The institution currently aims to support teaching and research activities in the areas of Social Sciences, History and Humanities developed at the university, by collecting, organising, preserving and disseminating documentary sources. As far as anthropology is concerned, the AEL now houses more than ten archival funds - with the initial materials received and produced by the PHAB. For more information : <> .

[9They are : Donald Pierson, Herbert Baldus (1899-1970), Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira (1928-2006) and part of the institutional collection of the Brazilian Anthropological Association (ABA). Donald Pierson was an American sociologist who developed his doctoral thesis on race relations in Bahia. He taught for more than twenty years at the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Política (Free School of Sociology and Politics) - an important institution located in São Paulo ; he also developed two major projects linked to so-called « community studies » : one in Cruz das Almas (in the interior of São Paulo), the other in the São Francisco Valley (which encompasses cities in four Brazilian states). Herbert Baldus was a German ethnologist who came to Brazil as a young man and stayed there all his life. He was a professor at the Escola Livre de Sociologia e Política, an employee and director of the Museu Paulista, and president of the ABA. He carried out research with various indigenous societies in the country. Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira was a Brazilian anthropologist who carried out research into the relationship between indigenous groups and national society, and into the theory and method of anthropology from a comparative perspective. He was president of the ABA and actively collaborated with the creation of some of the first postgraduate programmes in the country. See Serafim, 2021.

[10The contributions of the legacy of the anthropologist’s work and career are expressed in the articles in the « Dossier Mariza Corrêa : Ties, Memory and Writings », published in Cadernos Pagu as a tribute to one of the founders of the Studies Centre and the journal – Available at : <>. I would highlight the article ’Sidetracks : Mariza Corrêa and the history of anthropology in Brazil’ by Christiano Tambascia and Gustavo Rossi (2018).

[11Another three unpublished texts by the anthropologist, along with an article that contextualises them within her collection and work, were published in the « Behind the scenes of feminist knowledge production » section of the Cadernos Pagu magazine (issue 69, 2023). For more information, see : Corrêa 2023a ; 2023b ; 2023c ; Serafim 2023.

[12It is important to mention that the collection has not yet been organised, so the reference to its physical location may change in the future.

[13A list of some of these names can be found in Annex 1 of the report.

[14Mariza Corrêa and Donald Pierson communicated by letter for more than five years, resulting in the interview published in História da Antropologia no Brasil : 1930-1960 - Testemunhos : Emilio Willems e Donald Pierson (1987) – republished in Traficantes do simbólico & outros ensaios sobre a história da antropologia – and the donation of their documentary collection to PHAB.

[15« Community studies » arrived in Brazil with foreign researchers who worked in national institutions, such as Donald Pierson, Emílio Willems and Charles Wagley. These sociologists and anthropologists « were responsible for training national researchers, were involved in several of these studies and had a great influence on shaping a certain vision of the social scientist’s work, which associated field research with intervention in society » (Oliveira & Maio 2011, p. 522).

[16Charles Wagley was an American anthropologist and a professor at Columbia University, who researched indigenous societies in Amazonia and the northern region of Brazil. He actively collaborated on projects developed at the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro and at the State University of Bahia.

[17Thales de Azevedo was a doctor and anthropologist who chaired the Brazilian Anthropology Association. He carried out research into popular cultures and race relations in Bahia, and was an important intellectual in the institutionalisation of anthropology in the country. For more on him, see Guimarães 2021.

[18The books are : Os igaraúnas (1938) by the Brazilian writer Raimundo de Moraes (1872–1941), Numa e a ninfa (1915) by the writer and journalist Lima Barreto (1881–1922) and No pacoval de Carimbé (1933) by the physical anthropologist José de Bastos Ávila.

[19E.N. : One of Leolinda Daltro’s activities was to travel through the Brazilian sertão (hinterland) with the aim of encouraging secular literacy in indigenous communities. Thus, sertanista refers to this endeavour in the interior of the country, namely the scrubland in the Northeast region of Brazil.

[20Some authors have dedicated themselves to writing about the relationship and trajectory of female students of the two anthropologists mentioned. Among them, I would like to mention the work of Zelda Alice Franceschi, entitled « Las discípulas ocultas de Franz Boas. Historia e Historias de vida » (2014), which deals with the careers of three anthropologists : Zora Neale Hurston (1891–1960), Elsie Clews Parsons (1875–1941) and Ruth Landes (1908–1991).

[21Although Mariza Corrêa dedicated herself more intensely to researching Brazilian anthropology, the international scene was not unknown to her. She also wrote about the imbrications of gender in the history of French, North American and British anthropology in the article « My grandmother’s corset : female lineages in anthropology » (Corrêa 1997), later published in Anthropólogas & Antropologia.